the townshend act

By a vote of 92 to 17, the House refused to comply, and Bernard promptly dissolved the legislature. His logic was that these were “indirect,” not direct, taxes. For every ream of paper called Small Ordinary Brown, made in Great Britain, three pence.

For every ream of paper called Genoa Royal, two shillings and five pence farthing. For every ream of paper called Crown Fine, made in Great Britain, nine pence. Coincidentally, on the same day as that conflict — March 5, 1770 — Parliament voted to repeal all of the Townshend Acts except the tax on tea. In total, there were five separate laws that made up the Townshend Acts: For every ream of paper called Demy Printing, one shilling and three pence. For every hundred weight avoirdupois of painters colours, two shillings. [17], The first of the Townshend Acts, sometimes simply known as the Townshend Act, was the Revenue Act 1767. For every ream of paper called Second Writing Imperial, eight shillings and three pence. For every ream of paper called Genoa Medium, one shilling and ten pence halfpenny.

[43] Before this act, there was just one vice admiralty court in North America, located in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The fourth act, passed on July 2, repealed the inland duties on tea in England and permitted it to be exported to the colonies free of all British taxes. The injustices involved led to the Third Amendment of the Bill of Rights in 1789. VII.

[51] Eloquently articulating ideas already widely accepted in the colonies,[51] Dickinson argued that there was no difference between "internal" and "external" taxes, and that any taxes imposed on the colonies by Parliament for the sake of raising a revenue were unconstitutional. This law is the reason Americans have the right to a trial by jury. The Stamp Act proved to be wildly unpopular in the colonies, contributing to its repeal the following year, along with the failure to raise substantial revenue. Repealing these acts was just them deciding to be nice. [30] Previously, the colonial assemblies had paid these salaries, but Parliament hoped to take the "power of the purse"[31] away from the colonies. Doug Krehbiel, "British Empire and the Atlantic World," in Paul Finkelman, ed.. 7 Geo. The Townshend Acts consisted of the Suspending Act, the Revenue Act, the Indemnity Act, and the Commissioners of Customs Act. The Commissioners of Customs Act of 1767 created a new customs board in Boston that was meant to improve the collection of taxes and import duties, and reduce smuggling and corruption. • Portions of the revenue generated by the Townshend Acts were to be used to pay Colonial officials wages that ensured their loyalty to the Crown. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any action or suit shall be commenced against any person or persons for any thing done in pursuance of this act, the defendant or defendants, in any such action or suit, may plead the general issue, and give this act, and the special matter, in evidence, at any trial to be had thereupon; and that the same was done in pursuance and by the authority of this act; and if it shall appear so to have been done, the jury shall find for the defendant or defendants; and if the plaintiff shall be nonsuited, or discontinue his action after the defendant or defendants shall have appeared; or if judgement shall be given upon any verdict or demurrer against the plaintiff; the defendant or defendants shall recover treble costs, and have the like remedy for the same, as any defendant or defendants hath or have in other cases by law. 56; Labaree. "Notorious Smuggler", 236–46; Knollenberg, without providing representation in Parliament, American Revolutionary War § Background and political developments, "Indemnity | Meaning of Indemnity by Lexico", http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/score_lessons/market_to_market/pages/mercantilism_imports_and_e.htm, "Vice-Admiralty Courts and Writs of Assistance", Documents on the Townshend Acts and Period 1767–1768, An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies, A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress, Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, A Summary View of the Rights of British America, Church of England Assembly (Powers) Act 1919, Measures of the National Assembly for Wales, Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Townshend_Acts&oldid=987013677, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This article is part of a series about the, raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would remain loyal to Great Britain, create more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations, establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies. Previously, through the Trade and Navigation Acts, Parliament had used taxation to regulate the trade of the empire.

And whereas the permitting foreign lace made of silk or thread and foreign needle-work, to be worn or used in Great Britain, after the same had been seized and condemned, gives the unfair dealer in those commodities, opportunity to secure from seizures great quantities thereof, which are clandestinely imported: Now to prevent a practice so very prejudicial to the publick revenue, and the manufacturers of such goods in this kingdom; be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the seventh day of July, one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven, no foreign lace made of silk or thread, or foreign needle-work, which shall have been, or shall be, seized and condemned in Great Britain, for any cause of forfeiture, shall be sold or delivered out of any custom-house warehouse wherein the same shall be secured, otherwise than on condition to be exported under the like securities, regulations, and restrictions, penalties, and forfeitures, as are prescribed by law, for the due exportation of East India goods prohibited to be worn or used in Great Britain; any law, custom, or usage to the contrary notwithstanding. For every ream of paper called Ordinary Pot, not made in Great Britain, six pence three farthings. [29] Townshend changed the purpose of the tax plan, however, and instead decided to use the revenue to pay the salaries of some colonial governors and judges. The use of search warrants allowed officers to enter buildings and find smuggled goods that colonists may have hidden (Dickinson, 30). [49] Townshend did not live to see this reaction, having died suddenly on September 4, 1767. The Indemnity Act was 7 Geo. Boston merchants organized the first non-importation agreement, which called for merchants to suspend importation of certain British goods effective 1 January 1768. For every ream of other paper called Superfine Pot, not made in Great Britain, one shilling and six pence. [34], To better collect the new taxes, the Commissioners of Customs Act 1767 established the American Board of Customs Commissioners, which was modeled on the British Board of Customs. On March 5, 1770—ironically the same day as the Boston Massacre, though Britain would not learn of the incident for weeks—new British Prime Minister Lord North asked the House of Commons to repeal most of Townshend Revenue Act while retaining the lucrative tax on imported tea. For every ream of paper called Blue Royal, one shilling and six pence.

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